It is not Aristotle’s fault. It is your fault.


So, you think Aristotle was stupid?  Sorry, no, you are stupid.

What modern science fails to recognize about Ancient Greek science is the limitations of observation without any extending technology put on Greek theory.

Modern scientists don’t acknowledge that every refutation of Aristotlean theory was due to the introduction of technology over 1000s of years that extended our powers of observation to macrosensory and microsensory ranges.

Aristotle’s theories were the best anyone could have come up with using the tools, unassisted human sensation, they had.

Aristotle in trying to describe the motion of thrown objects was a good description of the motion of rocket propelled objects.

The Greek elements of Earth, Water, Air and Fire are actually describing the states of Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma and rules they do obey.

Aristotle’s and Ptolemy’s model of the heavens was simply an attempt to make a mechanical clock to represent the observed movement of the heavens.  Their unassisted sensory experience made their conclusions and their model unavoidable until tools for macroscopic observation of the sun, planets and stars were possible.

Spontaneous generation recognizes that moisture and decay create a favorable environment for the growth of organisms.  What had not been observed was the existence of microscopic eggs, spermatazoa and sexual reproduction.

So Aristotle and Ptolemy used the best metaphors they had.  That has not changed.  The best model we have right now is a computer.  In about 1500 years they will say we were complete idiots.




An ambigram, also known as an inversion, is a graphical figure that spells out a word not only in its form as presented, but also in another direction or orientation. This is typically when viewed as a mirror-image or when rotated through 180 degrees. The word usually is not a palindrome, although it may be. Sometimes the word spelled out from the alternate direction may be a different one, but for mirror-image ambigrams the canonical form spells out the same word.


Ambigrams in their modern form are a conception of John Langdon who compiled his work in his 1992 book Wordplay.

However, ambigrams were made famous through Dan Brown’s novel Angels & Demons.

I first came across the following ambigram in a copy of Omni magazine in the early 1980s


Here is the same ambigram upside down:


and found them to be a great mental excercise. Langdon discusses his technique in his article “Typographic Dopplegangers”.

This is the most famous commercial ambigram in Canada:


Voice of Amercia also uses an ambigram for its logo:


Here is a hastily drawn ambigram of my first name:


The most awesome piece of name ambigram software is at’s Flipscript Designer

I also recommend a very good ambigram blog Ambigrams by Nagfa from one of my favorite countries, Singapore. Ambigram artists from all over the world contribute to this blog to share ideas and compete. I consider it the best of all the sites I have found.  Here is one they graciously did for me:

This is another artform Nagfa does:

An ambigram tutorial can be found at


Another ambigram site that has increased in popularity is Wow Tattoos.  This is the site of Mark Palmer who has made a career of ambigram tattoos such as the “singularity” tattoo above.

I came across this bilingual Chinese English ambigram at David Moser’s Chinese Ambigram Site


Here’s something really innovative by ambigram artist Amafirlian on flicker (available in many sizes) called “fire”:

I just found this elegant ambigram below by Tiffany Harvey who does custom work through her site

Here’s a nice example of the name “Karen” from Ambigraphix:

Karen Ambigram by Ambigrafix

“AS YOU WISH”, here’s an ambigram that will keep on giving to the ladies in your life (click on the image to go to, no catch):

And in closing I found this at The Roman Empire Blog:

(image:, via

I recommend playing with ambigrams yourself to increase your mental flexibility.

I also add to this collection every month or so.  Please drop in again sometime.